1. U.S. Taxpayers (generally individuals physically present in the U.S. 121 days or more during a calendar year, long-term residents and citizens) must report their world-wide income, credits and deductions on U.S. tax returns (Form 1040) and, in general, are entitled to foreign tax credits for income taxed by a foreign country. Non-residents are subject to U.S.: (i) income tax on their U.S. source income; and (ii) estate tax on their U.S. property, including real estate and securities (stocks, bonds and debt instruments) of U.S. companies and individuals. See IRS Publication 54 (also available as a .pdf) for details.
2. U.S. Taxpayers with an ownership interest or signature authority over foreign financial accounts (bank and brokerage accounts, corporate, trust and other entity accounts, certain retirement plans and life insurance with a cash value) are required to electronically file an annual Foreign Bank and Financial Account Reports (FBARS) on or before the due date of their income tax return for the following year. The maximum fine for non-willful failure to timely file an FBAR is $10,000 and there is a six-year statute of limitations for assessing the penalty. The penalty may be reduced or eliminated upon showing “reasonable cause.”